Sunday, August 23, 2020

The Joys of Being Pregnant Free Essays

On August 9, 2010, life as I was already aware it changed until the end of time. It was a typical summer day at home, much like whatever other Monday that mid year. Everything outwardly had all the earmarks of being equivalent to regular, yet within, I knew there was a change. We will compose a custom article test on The Joys of Being Pregnant or on the other hand any comparative point just for you Request Now I was fourteen days pregnant and I wouldn’t know it until about 5:30 that night. It was an enthusiastic revelation, finding that I would turn into a mother in somewhat less than nine brief months. Not exclusively did that revelation transform me, yet it additionally changed the lives of numerous other people who love and care about me. My mom, 33, would turn into a youthful grandma and my progression father, 26, would turn into a considerably more youthful granddad. My beau of three years would need to discard his adolescence and become a man for his child or little girl. I was terrified to death that the stun and seriousness of my circumstance would devastate any opportunity of picking up the help of them, yet each of the three, alongside the remainder of my family, continued adoring me and started to cherish the new life becoming within me. I am presently eleven weeks pregnant and I have had the benefit of really observing my infant by means of ultrasound. The person was right around a centimeter long on the first of September and took after a nut or a lima bean. Seeing the baby’s heartbeat blazing like a small strobe light hit me like a huge amount of blocks. The â€Å"embryo† that I had known about in books and charts was presently a kid to me; a living, developing child who was creating arms and legs and eyes. An infant that may grow up to have my dimples or my boyfriend’s blue eyes. The person would call me â€Å"mommy† and love me genuinely. What's more, I would adore the person in question directly back, as solid and as hard as could be expected under the circumstances. I keep the photos from the sonogram on the fridge, however my preferred one is in a little white casing in my room. I take a gander at it regularly and I wonder how much the infant has changed since that image was taken. My next arrangement is the 29th, and I am so on edge to have the option to perceive how much this life within me has become and have the option to bring home more pictures that I will prize as much as the first. Instructions to refer to The Joys of Being Pregnant, Essay models

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Song Analysis Angel of Mine Essay Example

Melody Analysis Angel of Mine Essay Envision playing b-ball without a ball. Unimaginable right? That’s like having a fantasy that you need to transform into a reality, however you don't place in the difficult work and devotion to getting fruitful. You ought to consistently pose yourself three inquiries. For what reason am I doing it, what the outcomes may be, and will I be fruitful. â€Å"When I originally observed you, I definitely knew there was something within you, something I imagined that I could never discover, point of mine.† That line stood apart to me most in light of the fact that I felt an association with Monica on account of the relationship I’m right now in. Music is a vocal or instrumental sounds joined so as to deliver magnificence of structure, concordance, and articulation of feeling. All through this bit of craftsmanship you will get a handle on the comprehension of why numerous individuals can contrast their existence with Monica’s tune, â€Å"Angle of Mine.† When making a melody, Monica’s verses to her audience members is an entire distinctive comprehension. That’s simply like painters when they finish a bit of fine art, Monica Denise Brown is a maker, on-screen character and an American vocalist. I pick Monica on the grounds that I got a handle on an extraordinary association with her when I initially met her a couple of years prior. Her tunes additionally give me life since it helps me to remember past circumstances and furthermore about my present relationship. Monica was conceived October 24, 1980 and brought up in Oak park, Georgia. 1At the age of two, Monica followed in her mother’s strides. She emulated her example with customary exhibitions at the Jones Hill Chapel. Turning into an artist, entertainer and a maker is a stunning/extraordinary experience; particularly at a youthful age. Monica is the main girl of Marilyn Best, and she additionally has siblings. Her more youthful sibling was conceived in 1983, her relative Jermond Grant is on her father’s side. She likewise has two maternal stepbrothers, Tron and Cypress. Monica is a cousin of record maker Polow da Don, and relative-in-law to rapper Ludacris; that is through her mother’s second mama We will compose a custom paper test on Song Analysis Angel of Mine particularly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom exposition test on Song Analysis Angel of Mine particularly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom exposition test on Song Analysis Angel of Mine particularly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer

Friday, August 21, 2020

Voice Controlled Computer Technology Essay

Voice Controlled Computer Technology Essay Voice Controlled Computer Technology Essay In the wake of this techno-canny age, we bring to advertise a progressive PC item. Most PCs in presence can scarcely utilize voice controlled component in serving the client, yet what we have brought to the individuals can utilize voice and help the proprietor bring out differing exercises through talking. The conventional over dependence on keys to explore the web, attempt online hunt and offer conversation starters expecting answers is taken through a change in perspective to talking. IMC bring to the open another involvement with the PC innovation and endeavors to guarantee that one gets the estimation of his cash. Customers can get to some other significant data and post enquiries whenever through the mail that will be given. Every day media show will highlight in nearby dailies and top TV stations over the world. Subsequently, ultra-present day way to deal with data and correspondence innovation is brought agreeable to you. The Voice Controlled innovation in the PC is introduced in the other correspondence contraptions like Smartphones, and this is the comparative plan in the new brand of PCs. The strategy to make this fantasy acknowledgment is exceedingly straightforward. It will even make the PC a greater amount of like a pet by allocating a name to it say, â€Å"Butty†. At the point when one has this element in the PC, numerous things can be practiced at the moment of insignificant talking with most extreme comfort and high effectiveness. This innovation is client engaged and progressively viable to the expanding need of correspondence in the contemporary society. It is a moment issue solver, and easy to understand in this way ensure the general social way of thinking of man to offer types of assistance to mankind. Reception of this new innovation today will assist one with completing things without sitting and squeezing the PC console. Our article essayists can set up a custom paper on this theme. Visit and recruit the best scholastic author beginning at $13/page!

buy custom Effects of High Price on Foods essay

purchase custom Effects of High Price on Foods article Presentation The significance of food to people wellbeing is very boundless particularly solid nourishments like vegetables and organic products. Notwithstanding different nourishments like proteins and sugars vegetables and natural products have an essential incentive to human wellbeing as they give nutrient C. These supplements are essential to the human wellbeing as they shield them from a few infections like disease, visual perception issues, and some more. This paper tries to build up the fundamental clarifications with respect to why the expense of more advantageous nourishments, for example, foods grown from the ground continue expanding in the market. Costs of products increment, and this expansion happen because of different reasons, and that is the thing that this paper looks to decide. The firm increment in costs of all items has made it harder for individuals to pick nourishments that are more advantageous in the stores. A significant perspective in attempting to take care of a family is guaranteeing that they have solid and nutritious nourishments, and therefore, the subject of increment in costs of food is a basic subject. Individuals wherever care about the subject and thus in this paper we will recognize a portion of the reasons that lead to the expansion of food costs. This paper targets thinking of the reasons and clarification for the expansion of food costs particularly the sound ones like products of the soil. These clarifications and reasons will be from different inquires about done by other concerned gatherings and recorded in auxiliary sources, for example, books. In investigate, data can be from essential or optional sources. Essential wellsprings of data include direct data got utilizing meetings, polls, and perception. Auxiliary data is from books, electronic database, and magazines among different records. In this paper, a large portion of the data was from books. We presently center around the clarification that different financial analysts and others have come up as the purpose behind the expansion in the expense of sound nourishments. Flexibly and request The primary explanation that most financial experts and analysts ascribe to the expansion of food costs particularly the solid ones like products of the soil is their interest. One of the significant principles in financial matters is that costs of wares will consistently decide the interest and flexibly of these merchandise in the market. Products of the soil are solid nourishments whose request is all as the year progressed. Taking into account that these nourishments are regular and just develop in various pieces of the nation once per year, the merchants despite everything need to stock the stores with these food sources. This steady interest of products of the soil forces a monetary strain on the on the providers. Consequently, the providers mirror these expenses on the shopper. In contrast with different nourishments which are high in calories, leafy foods will in general increment in costs relying upon the season. During high season when their creation is at its pinnacle the costs will be moderately steady, in any case, when the season switches the costs go up. Their interest being consistent and doesn't change with the season, the providers will build their costs so as to conceal for the expenses of getting stock from places where they are in season. This value change will be reflected in both local and universal markets. At the point when the new foods grown from the ground are not in season their gracefully diminishes. Reduction in flexibly prompts an expansion in costs of the nourishments. In this way, gracefully and request of foods grown from the ground fundamentally influences their costs. Climatic issues There have been numerous huge elements which impact the amount of foods grown from the ground vegetables and an Earth-wide temperature boost is one of them. This has had negative climatic impacts that have harmed the creation of these nourishments in this manner lessening their flexibly. Increasing speed of costs comes thus ofthe rising weight on ranch food creation. The decrease in yields are because of a worldwide temperature alteration, which is being harm by pollution of the air; the quality has diminished by 60 percent as per ADB (2008) the nations yield has declined because of poor climatic conditions. The issue of liberated from ozone depleting substance outflow is rising the earths temperature whereby the outcomes ordinarily follows on liquefying ice sheets, more precipitation, and in a general sense change in periods of creation. The quickening pace of environmental change, joined with the overall population and pay development, undermines food security around the world. Horticulture, which is in direct association with the creation of leafy foods, is especially defenseless against environmental change. Higher temperatures diminish the yields of this produce as the temperatures give an opportunity to vermin and weed multiplication. Contrasts in precipitation designs increment the odds of short-run crop deficiencies and since quite a while ago run creation decreases. Despite the fact that there will be an expansion in certain yields in certain pieces of the world, the general impacts of environmental change on expected of agribusiness to be negative, undermining worldwide food security. Environmental change is additionally squeezing water supplies for rural creation of vegetables and natural products, changing stream streams, and its accessibility. Water is getting hard to get: thusly, costly worldwide interest for water has significantly increased over the most recent couple of years and constrained use ground water supplies in the USA. The effect of climatic change has unfavorably sway on efficiency of vegetables creation and causes interruption both in the long haul and present moment. This effect is apparent in the low gracefully of these nourishments in zones where the creation was very high. Vitality costs Another explanation behind the expansion in the costs of sound nourishments is the cost the makers and merchants acquire to carry these nourishments to the market or stores. Solid nourishments include foods grown from the ground and these are transitory and occasional merchandise. The main cost that one brings about while managing nourishments is the vehicle cost. The transportation of these products of the soil winds up reflecting in the general expense. This transportation can be from abroad as these nourishments are not locally accessible. The vast majority of the organic products are imports from different nations and transportation will include implies like delivery, air transport, and railroad transport. The vast majority of these methods for transport are phenomenally costly, however, they are the most suitable ones. For instance, the transportation of certain organic products from different countries utilizing the delivery methods for transport can be costly as it requires th e refrigeration of the merchandise. These refrigeration types of gear are costly, and the transporters are the ones bringing about the expense. Transport includes the utilization of fuel in all implies that are being used for instance, dispatching, air travel, street and so on. Vitality costs influence all degree of the food creation area. In contemporary records oil costs, in abundance, has expanded from $110 per barrel and which has cost all through the promoting chain. High oil costs increment the seriousness in food creation particularly in vegetable and natural products creation. Post gather misfortune Post gather misfortune is another critical clarification to the expansion in of costs of solid nourishments. Post collect misfortune alludes to the loss of the produce after its reaping. This happens for the most part to agribusiness items, and the solid nourishments in center are agrarian items. During gathering, misfortunes happen in various ways. First the organic products can be reaped when they are ready and, hence, need master stockpiling before they get to the market. This is typically difficult to the ranchers as they come up short on the storerooms. Thusly, they experience a few misfortunes of the items and this lose is regularly caused by buyers of the produce. Another reaping misfortune happens when the produce are influenced by illnesses and nuisances. Growths and microscopic organisms are infections, which cause these misfortunes of foods grown from the ground as are the infection illnesses, basic in developing yields. It is described by extreme nearness of openings makes which makes contaminated, organic product to be unusable. This is regularly the aftereffect of irritation of foods grown from the ground in the field before gather. Quality whipping happens when the disease influences just the highest point of the natural products. Likewise, skin imperfections may diminish the deal cost however don't make the organic product awful, and unpalatable items. Contagious and bacterial sicknesses spread by little spores, which convey noticeable all around and earth and through rotting plant material. Contamination after outcome can happen at any occurrence. It is normally the consequence of gathering or taking care of wounds. These post gather misfortunes costs are reflected in the selling cost of the produce which is ordinarily high. Post collect misfortune has been a difficult issue which comes due to different reasons, changing from developing conditions to taking care of at the retail level. Not exclusively are these misfortunes a waste, they in some cases establish a homogeneous maltreatment of human endeavors, vocations, rare asset, for example, water, and ventures. Products of the soil vegetables hold a high extent of water. Loss of water content in the wake of gathering by leafy foods as a rule cause shrinkage and loss of offer for the rural items. The rate at which they lose water, organic products fundamentally rely upon verdant vegetables, which forestall water rapidly on the grounds that they have dainty skin pores. The pace of misfortune identifies with the contrast between the water fume pressure inside the products of the soil and noticeable all around. Yet, whatever the result, to advance food or capacity account the expense of water trouncing must be insignificant. The most essential component is the proportion of the outside territory of the organic product or vegetable to its volume. Early collecting of foods grown from the ground ordinarily happens to stay away from additional expenses on transportation. Moving completely ready produce prompts additional expenses as it will require impressive storerooms to keep the collect new and consumable. Likewise, transportation of ready items prompts the creation of very darn

Monday, July 6, 2020

Linking Verbs Examples

Linking Verbs Examples Linking Verbs Linking Verbs are verbs that express a state of being. They are called "linking" verbs because they link the subject of the sentence to a word or phrase in the predicate that renames or describes the subject (tells us more about the subject's "state of being"). Examples of Linking Verbs: All forms of the verb "be" are always linking verbs. Forms of be: be being been am is are was were Other verbs can be linking verbs or action verbs: Examples: feel taste smell look grow To find a linking verb: 1) If the verb is a form of be (be, being, been, am, is, are, was, were), you have a linking verb. 2) For other verbs, if you can replace the verb with a form of "be" and the sentence makes sense, you have a linking verb. Examples with explanation: John is nice. (Is links John to an adjective describing him.) Lauren was at the theater. (Was links Lauren to a phrase telling us where she is.) Tanner feels sick. (Feels links Tanner to an adjective describing him.) Mr. Peters is our teacher. (Is links Mr. Peters to a noun renaming him.) Example of how to find a linking verb: The flower looks beautiful. Is the flower "looking"? No. Could you say "The flower is beautiful."? Yes. In this sentence, "looks" is a linking verb. More examples: 1) The cake smells good. 2) My cousins were late to the party. 3) Ava looks tired. 4) We are the champions! 5) The fireworks are amazing! 6) This spaghetti tastes good. 7) I think the sun is rising. 8) Is the phone on the table?

Wednesday, July 1, 2020

Liability Claim House - Free Essay Example

Liability Claim House Question One In order to determine whether Hermione will be successful in a claim against Harry, the law of tort is examined. A tort may be defined as the breach of a legal duty owed, independent of contract by one person to another, for which a common law action for unliquidated damages may be brought. If we take into consideration the Hedley Byrne v Heller (1964) case where the claimants were an advertising agency, who had been asked by a firm called Easipower Ltd to buy substantial amounts of advertising space on their behalf. To make sure their clients were creditworthy, Hedley Byrne asked their own bank, the National Provincial, to check on them. National Provincial twice contacted Heller, who were Easipower’s bankers and were backing them financially, to inquire about Easipower’s creditworthiness. Heller gave favourable references on both occasions, but in each time included a disclaimer – ‘without responsibility on the part of this Bank or its officials’. The second inquiry asked whether Easipower was ‘trustworthy, in the way of business, to the extent of  £100,000 per annum’, and Heller answered that Easipower was a respectably constituted company, considered good for its ordinary business engagement. This message was conveyed to Hedley Byrne, and , relying on that advice, they entered into a contract with Easipower Ltd. Easipower later went into liquidation, leaving Hedley Byrne to pay the  £ 17,000 due to companies from whom they had bou ght advertising space. Hedley Byrne claimed this amount from Heller. In view of the words disclaiming liability, the House of Lords held that no duty of care was accepted by Heller, and none arose, so the claim failed. However, the House also considered what their conclusion would have been if no words of disclaimer had been used, and this is where the importance of the case lies. Their Lordships stated obiter that in appropriate circumstances, there could be a duty of care to give careful advice, and that breach of that duty could give rise to liability for negligence. The greatest impact of Hedley Byrne v Heller has undoubtedly been in the sphere of professional work, because it is here that one person’s reliance on advice from another is most likely to be regarded as reasonable. In fact, the principle has been extended to situations in which there is no apparent ‘advice’ at all, but where the professional adviser can be said to have assumed respons ibility for the service which he provides, hence the Hedley Byrne principals. The House of Lords laid down a number of requirements which claimants would need to satisfy in order to establish a duty of care under Hedley Byrne. There must be a ‘special relationship’ between the parties; a voluntary assumption of responsibility by the party giving the advice; reliance by the other party on that advice or information; and such reliance must be reasonable. Lord Reid made it plain that the ‘special relationship’ requirement meant that Hedley Byrne only covers situations where advice is given in a business context. Advice given off-the-cuff in a social setting will therefore not, as a rule, give rise to a duty of care. In some cases it has been suggested that even in a business context, the required relationship will only exist where the defendants are in the business of providing the actual type of advice that the claimants sought. This was held in Mutu al Life and Citizens Assurance v Evatt (1971), where an insurance company had carelessly given false information about a company in which the claimant had invested. The Privy Council held that there was no duty of care; the defendants were in the business of providing insurance, not providing investment advice, and could not be liable for such advice. A majority of the court held that Hedley Byrne should be restricted to cases involving people whose profession centres around giving of advice, such as accountants, solicitors and surveyors. In Smith v Eric S Bush (1990), the claimants were the purchasers of a house which had been negligently surveyed by the defendants, and was worth much less than they had paid for it. The survey had been commissioned by the building society from which the claimants had sought a mortgage, as part of its standard practice of ensuring that the property was worth at least the money that was being lent. However, such surveys were routinely relied upon by purchasers as well, and in fact purchasers actually paid the building society to have the survey done, although the surveyors’ contract was always with the building society. The House of Lords held that in such situations surveyors assumed a duty of care to house purchasers; even though the surveys were not done for the purpose of advising home buyers, surveyors would be well aware that buyers were likely to rely on their valuation, and the surveyors only had the work in the first place because buyers were willing to pay their fees. However it should be noted that this did not impose a particularly wide liability: the extent of the surveyors’ liability was limited to compensating the buyer of the house for up to the value of the house. Therefore, based on the above cases and principals, it is apparent that the surveyor was negligent and that Hermione will definitely be successful in a claim against Harry. Question two An employer will only be responsible for torts committed by their employees is those torts are committed in the course of the employment, rather than, as the courts have put it, when the employee is on a ‘frolic of his own’ (Hilton v Thomas Burton (Rhodes) Ltd (1961) ). The tort will have been committed in the course of employment if the act which comprises the tort is one which has been authorised by the employer, even if the employee performs the act in a manner which was not authorised by the employer. An employer may also be liable for acts done by employees (but not independent to contractors) where their behaviour has not been authorised, but is sufficiently connected with authorised acts that it can be regarded as merely an improper way of committing the authorised acts. In the past this has allowed for a wide interpretation of the phase ‘in the course of their employment’. In Century Insurance v Northern Ireland Road Transport (1942), the def endants’ employee, a petrol tanker driver, was unloading petrol from his tanker to underground storage in the claimant’s garage, when he struck a match to light a cigarette and then dropped the lighted match on to the ground. This caused an explosion, damaging the claimant’s property. The defendants were found to be vicariously liable for his negligence, on the basis that what he doing at the time was part of his job, even if he was doing it in a negligent way. It was agreed that the match was struck for his own purposes, not those of the employer, but nevertheless, in the circumstances in which it was done it was still the course of his employment. In the case of Storey v Ashton (1869), some employees had finished delivering wine for their employer and were on their way back after their official work hours were over. They decided to take a detour to visit a relation of one of the employees. On the way there they negligently ran over the claimant. His atte mpt to sue their employer failed as they were treated as being on a ‘new and independent journey’ from their work trip at the time of the accident. An employer who expressly prohibits an act will not be liable if an employee commits that act. However, the employer may be liable if the prohibition can be regarded as applying to the way in which the job is done, rather than to the scope of the job itself. In Limpus v London General Omnibus Co (1862) a bus driver had been given written instructions not to race with or obstruct other buses. He disobeyed this order, and while racing another bus, he caused a collision with the claimant’s bus, which damaged it. The court held that he was doing an act which he was authorised to do that is driving the bus in such a way as to promote the defendants’ business. This meant that he was within the course of his employment, even though the way he was doing the job was quite improper and had been prohibited. The defe ndants were vicariously liable. In the cases of criminal acts alleged to be done in the course of employment, tend to take the form of either violent assaults or property offences such as theft. In the case of assaults, the courts are very unlikely to find that the employee acted in the course of employment. Because vicarious liability makes the employer and employee joint tortfeasors, each fully liable to the claimant, an employee who is sued on the basis of vicarious liability is entitled to sue the employee in turn, and recover some or all of the damages paid for the employee’s tort. This is called an indemnity, and the employer’s entitlement to sue may derive either from the provisions of the Civil Liability (Contribution) Act 1978, or in common law under the principle in Lister v Romford Ice and Cold Storage (1957). Vicarious liability obviously conflicts with the basic principle of tort, that wrongdoers should be liable for their own actions. It has bee n pointed out that the employer is in control of the conduct of employees, and therefore should be responsible for their acts. While this may have persuasive in the past, in modern industrial society, with its increasingly sophisticated division of labour, it is very difficult to believe. This therefore contributes to the reasons why vicarious liability is imposed. The other reasons include the benefit of work done by employees to employers, prevents negligent recruitment, promotion of care by employers to employees if imposition of liability is on employers and an employer will be in the best financial position to meet a claim, either because its resources are greater than those of an individual employee, or, more often because it has relevant insurance cover. Therefore based on the above an employer is always liable for torts committed by the people that he employs to carry out work, unless as in the case of Storey v Ashton mentioned above. Question Three The tort of nuisance sets out to protect the right to use and enjoy land, without interference from others. There are actually three types of nuisance, private, public and statutory. The tort of private nuisance essentially arises from the fact that, whether we are out in the countryside or in the middle of a city, we all have neighbours and the way they behave on their land may affect us on ours. The essence of liability for private nuisance is an unreasonable interference with another’s use or enjoyment of land, and in assessing what is reasonable, the courts will try to balance each party’s right to use the land as they wish. In Murdoch v Glacier Co Ltd (1998) the claimant lived near to the defendant’s factory. She complained that a low droning noise which came from the factory at night was preventing her from sleeping. Her evidence included a report from the World Health Organisation stating that this type of noise had been proved to disturb sleep if it went above a particular level, and the noise from the factory was measured and found to be at or above this level. The Court of Appeal held that the trial judge was right in holding that this did not constitute an actionable nuisance considering the area in which the claimant’s house was situated, which was among other things close to a busy bypass, and considering that fact that no other local residents had complained about the noise. Based on the above principal, the locality of the Black’s house would impact on the decision made by the court, the Black’s purchased the house knowing the location, therefore Mr and Mrs Black will be unsuccessful in a claim for damages or loss of enjoyment of the land against the owners of the factory, but may be successful in attaining an injunction. An injunction is the main remedy for nuisance and it makes the defendant stop the activity which is causing the nuisance for a specific time period. The degree of the injun ction will depend entirely upon the decision taken by the court of law. In St Helens Smelting Co v Tipping (1865), where the fumes from the copper-smelting works actually damaged trees and shrubs, this is enough grounds for Mr Black to claim against the owners of the factory for damages to the paint of his house. As it should be noted that, where physical damage is caused to the claimants property, the locality is irrelevant. This brings us to the advise for Sirius, in Hunter v Canary Wharf Ltd (1997), the House of Lords emphasised that private nuisance is a tort to land, rather than to those who own or occupy it. This means that no-one, not even the occupier, can recover damages in private nuisance for personal injury. It seems that damage to an occupiers goods is regarded as consequential on the damage to the land, so that damages can be recovered for this. However, public nuisance covers an even wider area than private nuisance, partly because it is not limited to interf erence with land. Public nuisance falls into two fairly broad categories, the interference with the exercise of public rights and the kind of interference such as noise and smoke, which is commonly a private nuisance, will also become a public nuisance if it affects a sufficiently substantial neighbourhood or section of the public. Whether or not this is so is a question of fact as in the case of A-G v PYA Quarries Ltd (1957), thus as in R v Lloyd (1802), where only three people complained of the noise, the defendant was held not guilty of public nuisance. The fact that a person is inconvenienced by a public nuisance does not of itself entitle him to recover damages in respect of it – Winterbottom v Lord Derby (1867). In order to claim damages Sirius must show that he has suffered some ‘special’ or ‘particular’ damage, over and above what is sustained by the public inn general. This requirement is satisfied due to his deterioration of health. As for Mr Black’s car, the damage to the paintwork, as in the case of Halsey v Esso Petroleum Co Ltd (1961), Mr Black is entitled to complain of the damage that is caused by the smuts from the factory. He would thus be able to recover the costs incurred for the repair of the paintwork to the car.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Biography of Kublai Khan, Ruler of Mongolia and China

Kublai Khan (September 23, 1215–February 18, 1294) was a Mongol emperor who founded the Yuan Dynasty in China. He was the most famous grandson of the great conqueror Genghis Khan, expanding his grandfathers empire and ruling the vast territory. He was the first non-Han emperor to conquer all of China. Fast Fact: Kublai Khan Known For:  Mongol Emperor, conqueror of southern China, founder of the Yuan dynasty in ChinaAlso Known As:  Kubla, KhubilaiBorn:  September 23, 1215 in MongoliaParents: Tolui and SorkhotaniDied:  February 18, 1294 in Khanbaliq (modern-day Beijing, China)Education: UnknownSpouse(s): Tegulen, Chabi of the Khonigirad, Nambui  Children: Dorji, Zhenjin, Manggala, Nomukhan, Khutugh-beki, and many others Early Life Although Kublai Khan was the grandson of Genghis Khan, very little is known about his childhood. We do know that Kublai was born in 1215 to Tolui (the youngest son of Genghis) and his wife Sorkhotani, a Nestorian Christian princess of the Kereyid Confederacy. Kublai was the couples fourth son. Sorkhotani was famously ambitious for her sons  and raised them to be leaders of the Mongol Empire, despite their alcoholic and fairly ineffectual father. Sorkhotanis political savvy was legendary; Rashid al-Din of Persia noted that she was extremely intelligent and able and towered above all the women in the world. With their mothers support and influence, Kublai and his brothers would go on to take control of the Mongol world from their uncles and cousins. Kublais brothers included Mongke, later also Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, and Hulagu, Khan of the Ilkhanate in the Middle East who crushed the Assassins but was fought to a standstill at Ayn Jalut by the Egyptian Mamluks. From an early age, Kublai proved adept at traditional Mongol pursuits. At 9, he had his first recorded hunting success and he would relish hunting for the rest of his life. He also excelled at conquest, the other Mongolian sport of the day. Gathering Power In 1236, Kublais uncle Ogedei Khan granted the young man a fiefdom of 10,000 households in Hebei Province, northern China. Kublai did not administer the region directly, allowing his Mongol agents a free hand. They imposed such high taxes on the Chinese peasants that many fled their land. At last, Kublai took a direct interest and halted abuses, so that the population grew once more. When Kublais brother Mongke became Great Khan in 1251, he named Kublai Viceroy of Northern China. Two years later, Kublai struck deep into southwest China, in what would be a three-year campaign to pacify Yunnan, the Sichuan region, and the Kingdom of Dali. In a sign of his growing attachment to China and Chinese customs, Kublai ordered his advisors to select a site for a new capital based on feng shui. They chose a spot on the frontier between Chinas agricultural lands and the Mongolian steppe; Kublais new northern capital was called Shang-tu (Upper Capital), which Europeans later interpreted as Xanadu. Kublai was at war in Sichuan once again in 1259, when he learned that his brother Mongke had died. Kublai did not immediately withdraw from Sichuan upon Mongke Khans death, leaving his younger brother Arik Boke time to gather troops and convene a kuriltai, or selecting council, in Karakhoram, the Mongol capital. The kuriltai named Arik Boke as the new Great Khan, but Kublai and his brother Hulagu disputed the result and held their own kuriltai, which named Kublai the Great Khan. This dispute touched off a civil war. Kublai, the Great Khan Kublais troops destroyed the Mongol capital at Karakhoram, but Arik Bokes army continued fighting. It was not until August 21, 1264, that Arik Boke finally surrendered to his older brother at Shang-tu. As Great Khan, Kublai Khan had direct control over the Mongol homeland and Mongol possessions in China. He was also the head of the larger Mongol Empire, with a measure of authority over the leaders of the Golden Horde in Russia, the Ilkhanates in the Middle East, and the other hordes. Although Kublai exerted power over much of Eurasia, opponents to Mongol rule still held out in nearby southern China. He needed to conquer this region once and for all and unite the land. Conquest of Song China In a program to win Chinese allegiance, Kublai Khan converted to Buddhism, moved his main capital from Shang-du to Dadu (modern-day Beijing), and named his dynasty in China Dai Yuan in 1271. Naturally, this prompted charges that he was abandoning his Mongol heritage and sparked riots in Karakhoram. Nevertheless, this tactic was successful. In 1276, most of the Song imperial family formally surrendered to Kublai Khan, yielding their royal seal to him, but this was not the end of resistance. Led by the Empress Dowager, loyalists continued to fight until 1279, when the Battle of Yamen marked the final conquest of Song China. As Mongol forces surrounded the palace, a Song official jumped into the ocean carrying the 8-year-old Chinese emperor, and both drowned. Kublai Khan as Yuan Emperor Kublai Khan came to power through strength of arms, but his reign also featured advancements in political organization and the arts and sciences. The first Yuan Emperor organized his bureaucracy based on the traditional Mongol ordu or court system, but also adopted many aspects of Chinese administrative practice. It was a shrewd decision since he had only tens of thousands of Mongols with him, and they had to rule millions of Chinese. Kublai Khan also employed large numbers of Chinese officials and advisors. New artistic styles flourished as Kublai Khan sponsored a melding of Chinese and Tibetan Buddhism. He also issued paper currency that was good throughout China and was backed by gold reserves. The emperor patronized astronomers and clockmakers  and hired a monk to create a written language for some of Western Chinas non-literate languages. Visit of Marco Polo From a European perspective, one of the most important events in Kublai Khans reign was the 20-year sojourn in China by Marco Polo, along with his father and uncle. To the Mongols, however, this interaction was simply an amusing footnote. Marcos father and uncle had previously visited Kublai Khan  and were returning in 1271 to deliver a letter from the Pope and some oil from Jerusalem to the Mongol ruler. The Venetian merchants brought along the 16-year-old Marco, who was gifted in languages. After an overland journey of three and a half years, the Polos reached Shang-du. Marco likely served as a court functionary of some sort. Although the family asked permission to return to Venice several times over the years, Kublai Khan denied their requests. Finally, in 1292, they were allowed to return along with the wedding cortege of a Mongol princess, who was sent to Persia to marry one of the Ilkhans. The wedding party sailed the Indian Ocean trade routes, a voyage that took two years and introduced Marco Polo to what is now Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, and India. Marco Polos vivid descriptions of his Asian travels, as told to a friend, inspired many other Europeans to seek wealth and exotic experiences in the Far East. However, it is important not to overstate his influence; trade along the Silk Road was in full flow long before his travelogue was published. Kublai Khans Invasions and Blunders Although he ruled the worlds richest empire in Yuan China, as well as the second-largest land empire ever, Kublai Khan was not content. He grew obsessed with further conquest in East and Southeast Asia. Kublais land-based attacks on Burma, Annam (northern Vietnam), Sakhalin, and Champa (southern Vietnam) were all nominally successful. Each of these countries became tributary states of Yuan China, but the tribute they submitted did not even begin to pay for the cost of conquering them. Even more ill-advised were Kublai Khans sea-borne invasions of Japan in 1274 and 1281, as well as the 1293 invasion of Java (now in Indonesia). The defeats of these armadas seemed to some of Kublai Khans subjects as a sign that he had lost the Mandate of Heaven. Death In 1281, Kublai Khans favorite wife and close companion Chabi died. This sad event was followed in 1285 by the death of Zhenjin, the Great Khans oldest son and heir apparent. With these losses, the Kublai Khan began to withdraw from the  administration of his empire. Kublai Khan tried to drown his sorrow with alcohol and luxurious food. He grew quite obese and developed gout. After a long decline, he died on February 18, 1294. He was buried in secret burial grounds in Mongolia. Kublai Khans Legacy The Great Khan was succeeded by his grandson Temur Khan, the son of Zhenjin. Kublais daughter Khutugh-beki married King Chungnyeol of Goryeo and became Queen of Korea as well. In Europe, Khans empire prompted wild flights of fancy from the time of  Marco Polos  expedition. His name may be most remembered in western countries today from the poem Kubla Khan, written by Samuel Coleridge in 1797. More importantly, Kublai Khans reign had an enormous impact on Asian history. He is regarded as one of the greatest rulers in history. He had reunited China after centuries of division and strife and ruled with shrewdness. Although the Yuan Dynasty lasted only until 1368, it served as a precedent for the later ethnic-Manchu Qing Dynasty. Sources Polo, Marco, Hugh Murray Giovanni Battista Baldelli Boni. The Travels of Marco Polo, New York: Harper Brothers, 1845.Rossabi, Morris. Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.